“Impossible Germany” (Wilco)- Why It Works

American band Wilco has been around for a good long time now, since 1994. Their lineup has changed over the years, but has remained the same since 2004: Jeff Tweedy (singer), John Stirratt (bass), Glenn Kotche (drums), Mikael Jorgensen (keyboards), Nels Cline (guitar) and Pat Sansone (keyboards, guitar, etc.)

If you listen to much Wilco you’ll know that the lyrics are probably the feature that pulls people in and makes them fans. But there’s so much more. Wilco’s instrumentations tend to be pleasantly transparent, ethereal when they need to be, but also energetic and driven when necessary (“I’m a Wheel“).

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If you’re a fan of music that’s thought-provoking and nostalgic, you’ll love “Impossible Germany” (Jeff Tweedy Glenn Kotche), from their 2007 album “Sky Blue Sky”:

There’s so much to say about this gorgeous tune, so let’s look at just a few of the things that make this song work so well.

Formal Design

Here’s the basic design of the song. You’ll notice that the song’s intro is used as a structural element throughout the song, so you’ll hear it return at the end of the chorus, again before the long guitar solo that finishes the song, and then again as a final statement:

Impossible Germany - Formal Design

The Power of a Great Introduction

The opening riff is a little duet for guitars, two bars long, that repeats several times before the verse begins at the 20-second mark. It’s clever because it makes use of two kinds of intervals: the bare, hollow sounds of the 4ths and 5ths, contrasted with the sweeter sounds of the thirds:

Impossible Germany - Intro

What makes these intro intervals so significant is that they describe the two overarching moods we pick up from this song when you listen from start to finish: agitated and unsettled: an instrumentation that features a barren, hollow transparent nature, intermingled with nostalgia: a warm, emotional feel in the chord choices and vocal line.

That means the intro demonstrates one of the most important principles in good songwriting: that all song components work together — nothing happens in a vacuum. If you want your audience to feel a certain something from the vocal line and lyric, you’ve got to find ways to incorporate those emotions into other aspects of the song.

The Lyrics

You can read the lyrics here. You definitely get the feeling that there’s a notion of unrequited love, or a love that evolves to something more supportive but platonic.

For those of you wanting to work on lyrics that are less literal, more imaginative and metaphoric, “Impossible Germany” is a great model. You find yourself wondering what each specific line could mean, but at the same time you’re not particularly bothered if the meaning of one particular line is elusive: it gives you something to think about, while still allowing you to enjoy the song.

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You can spend a long time parsing the words and phrases, and still not be sure you’ve got it right. But to me, the fullest meaning comes from the end of the lyric, which, if you read it simply as prose, reveals a clearer picture:

But this is what love is for – to be out of place, gorgeous and alone, face to face; with no larger problems that need to be erased
Nothing more important than to know someone’s listening
Now I know you’ll be listening

And then all that remains is to figure out how and why Germany and Japan appear in the lyric. Some figure that it’s a reference to the roles these two countries play internationally: allies, but always struggling to communicate. Perhaps. But regardless, it causes us to think and to try different interpretations. Maybe there’s another meaning that’s not so obvious.

The Melodies

The melodies of “Impossible Germany” make use of a small tone set, repeated over and over, and are presented to us in two short phrases: one that moves primarily upward (“Impossible Germany…”), followed by a mainly downward-moving one: (“unlikely Japan…”).

The thing you’ll notice about these phrases is that they’re short. In general, short musical phrases result in music that sounds a bit angst-ridden and unsettled.

I particularly like how the phrases lengthen toward the end of the chorus, at the words “This is important/ But I know you’re not listening…”. It’s as if the realization that “you’re not listening” is something he’s coming to terms with as the relationship he’s describing is morphing into something more platonic. But that’s my interpretation, and the lovely thing about songs like this is that true meaning can be elusive. All interpretations take time, and can be wrong but still work.

The Chords

There’s nothing ambiguous about the chord choices here. All the chords come from the key of G major, but the verses start on the ii-chord (Am) before making G feel like home.


Am – C – Gmaj7 – Em – Am | (repeat) ||


C – Am – C – Am – G – Em – Am – C – Am – C

There are some nice touches that add to the emotion of the song. Most of the time, for example, when the IV-chord happens, we get the note F# added in — an augmented 4th note which continues through to the G chord, becoming the major 7th in that chord. When added to C, it’s got an interesting “sour” (angst) flavour that modifies to something sweeter (nostalgic) when added to C: those two emotions contrasted once again.

Formal Choices

It’s not that uncommon for a song’s intro to keep coming back throughout a song. It’s a great way to add some symmetry to the formal design: when listeners hear things repeating it allows them the feeling that they “get” the song.

So the choice to bring this attractive feature of the song back again several times strengthens the song’s structure.

The long guitar solo — it comprises about half the entire length of the song — is captivating. It’s played over the chord progression: G – Em – Am. At times it’s simply a free solo, but starting at 4’08” it plays over a structured guitar riff made up of — again — short melodic phrases in the backing instrumentation.

It’s also a great reminder that instrumentals need to be well played. On the days that you’re not feeling that your songwriting is happening, those are great days to work on improving your own instrumental abilities. It pays off!


It’s great that a song that makes musical choices that might be considered simple and clear can still sound so imaginative and fresh. What makes this song work are:

  • imaginative lyrics that use words you’d hear in a casual conversation;
  • a simple melody that’s easy to sing and easy to remember, phrased to emphasize the emotion of the moment;
  • chord choices that lock into the tonic (G) and keeps pulling the listener back to that chord with a bit of harmonic interest (the augmented 4th in the IV-chord: F#)
  • deciding to add a long guitar solo to the end, one that’s well-conceived and well-played.

If you’re not familiar with Wilco or their music, check out their homepage, WilcoMusic.

Gary EwerWritten by Gary EwerFollow Gary on Twitter.

If you like starting songs by working out the chords first, you need a proper method. “Writing a Song From a Chord Progression” shows you exactly how to do it, and how to avoid some typical pitfalls. It’s part of “The Essential Secrets of Songwriting” 10-eBook Bundle.

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  1. Just heard this song at the end of Episode 5 in season 1 of “The Bear” on Hulu. It absolutely blew me away. Great tune.

  2. About the author of the article’s comment, “Maybe there’s another meaning that’s not so obvious,” my first thought on hearing the lyrics was that anyone say younger than 40-45 or so (e.g., the band members in 2007) might find it hard to reconcile what they see today when visiting Germany and Japan – two modern, successful, democratic countries similar in many ways to the US (Wilco’s home country), but that from the late 30’s until the mid 40’s were united against the rest of the world, and beaten down in the end, yet both had pretty remarkable rises from the ashes That perspective perhaps superimposed on the way a deep relationship is intertwined with aspects of both the challenges and rewards of the one-to-one relationship and the two-against-the world struggle.

    The guitarwork in the live version of this song is just incredible! I was not even much aware of Wilco until my wife shared that performance with me and I was just blown away.

  3. Wilco are masters at creating tension and the art of the subtle hook. The hook in this one is the soothing verses that give you some relief from the agitation you speak of for the repeating intro section. The same effect for the guitar solo and the crescendo of wonderful guitar work that comprise the final statement. Yet they somehow manage to find a way to end it with the unsettled feel. Brilliant!

  4. I ‘discovered’ Wilco about 12 years ago. I’ve seen them live at Solid Sound and in NJ and NY. One performance of Impossible Germany at the Beacon is particularly memorable. Nels’ solo blew the doors off the theater to the point where his bandmates were applauding him as well. Just unbelievable guitar wizardry. Looking forward to seeing them at Solid Sound again this year. Highly recommend. Thanks for all of your songwriting tips, Gary!

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