If you find it hard coming up with great original melodies, you do have an option to consider: using a melody from a public domain song.
Public domain refers to the fact that the original copyright of a song has expired. In many countries copyright expires 70 years after the death of the copyright holder. If the copyright is held by several people, it expires 70 years after the death of the final surviving author.
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In the United States, copyright expires 75 years after a work is composed. It’s important to do some research before you make the assumption that copyright has expired. Every country has its own copyright laws. In Canada for example, copyright expires 50 years after the death of the author.
Why Use Public Domain Songs?
Of course, it begs the question: if you’re a songwriter, why would you want to use a song that’s 75 years old as material?
You might be surprised to know that melodies haven’t really changed all that much. Presentation, production, and the style of performance are certainly radically different today, but the actual structure of melodies is not really significantly different.
You likely know that Simon & Garfunkel had a hit with “Scarborough Fair” — a song whose melody comes from the 19th century, with lyrics from the 17th century. Songwriter Eric Carmen wrote at least two hit songs that borrowed melodies from composer Rachmaninoff: “All By Myself” and “Never Gonna Fall In Love Again.”
Where to Find Public Domain Songs
The Public Domain Information Project website is a great place to get started, at least for some basic information about public domain songs. They offer to sell printed copies of the songs, but don’t appear to show you an example of what you’re actually purchasing (at least I’ve not seen it), so I’d use the site for information only.
Public libraries usually contain collections of folk songs and other traditional melodies, and in my own composition and arranging work, I’ve spent more time in the Reference section of libraries than anywhere else.
Be careful with online searches (Google, YouTube, etc.). You won’t know for certain that you’re getting accurate information. But working online can at least get you moving in the right direction for finding songs. Don’t assume because a song is old that it is in the public domain. Some copyright holders will transfer copyright to other individuals, and copyright can be extended in that way.
How to Use Public Domain Songs
Think of a public domain song as a songwriting partner who is providing you with a melody you can use. Some tips, advice and info:
- There is no requirement that you must use the lyric that comes along with it.
- You can modify PD melodies if you’d like to make changes.
- There is no requirement to credit the original composer if that person is known, but I can’t think of a reason why you wouldn’t.
- Try taking the melody, stripping away any chords if they’re provided, and harmonizing it your own way. (If you’re not sure how to choose chords to add to a melody, my eBook “How to Harmonize a Melody” will help.
- You can use small bits of PD songs, so feel free to compose your own verse melody and then use a PD song as the basis for your chorus.
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