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Of all the words that we can use to describe melodies (shape, range, length, etc.), there is probably no one characteristic that is as important as repetition. Most successful melodies, melodies that that attract our attention and are most memorable, are conglomerations of shorter melodic ideas brought together to form one melody. Sometimes this sense of repetition can be very obvious, such as the repetitious fragments that go together to form “Somewhere Over the Rainbow”, while for other songs the sense of repetition is more subtle, using melodic range as its most important formal construct: “Bridge Over Troubled Water.”
I mentioned “Somewhere Over the Rainbow” in a previous post as an example of a song with a notably beautiful melody. Repetition plays a vital role in its melodic construction. The song starts with a large leap upward, followed by a short sequence of stepwise notes. You’ll notice that each phrase of the verse copies this general idea.
“Bridge Over Troubled Water” uses repetition sparingly. Each verse is comprised of a long, meandering melody ending with a refrain. In this song, repetition on the micro level (the kind we see in “Somewhere Over the Rainbow”) is not important. Range is, however, quite important, with the highest notes appearing in the refrain.
But “Bridge Over Troubled Water” aside, repetition is one of the most important melodic features that songwriters should be thinking of when creating a new melody. Why? Repeating musical ideas make songs easier to remember. Without repetition, song melodies risk becoming long, aimless wanderings.
Repetition is just one aspect of a great song melody. Here are 10 ideas you might want to consider when writing song melodies:
- Make Melodies Mainly Stepwise. Melodies that feature an abundance of leaps (i.e., jumping up or down by large intervals) are hard to sing, and possibly hard for listeners to remember.
- Use Melodic Leaps to Inject Energy. While Tip #1 above cautions against using too many leaps, occasional melodic leaps can be distinctive and exciting. Many songs could be mentioned, like “You Make Me Feel Brand New“, by the 70s group The Stylistics, as great examples, particularly the opening lines of the verse.
- Try Inverting Melodic Ideas. It’s a subtle technique, but taking a melodic idea from one part of a song, and flipping it over so that its shape is, essentially, upside down, is a really interesting way to make a connection from one section to another. Taylor Swift’s “You Belong With Me” takes an original opening verse idea (“You’re on the phone with your girlfriend, she’s upset…”), and flips it over for the pre-chorus (“But she wears short skirts, I wear T-shirts…”)
- Explore Your Extreme Upper/Lower Vocal Range. It’s tempting (and quite logical) to always place songs in your vocal midrange, but placing songs right at the top of your range, even if those high notes sound a bit strained, can give your song a really nice edge.
- Rhythm Is Usually Busier in Verse Melodies Than Choruses. Though it’s not that hard to find songs where choruses are a bit more rhythmically active than verses (The Bee Gees’ “Tragedy“, for example), you’ll find that rhythmic activity tends to be more in verses. It complements the stronger chord progressions and lyrics that choruses usually feature.
- Use the Tonic Note and Chord More in Chorus Melodies than Verse Melodies. The tonic note is strong, and has a “final” quality that works well in the chorus.
- Keep Chorus Melodies Pitched Generally Higher than Verse Melodies. Because there needs to be a fairly noticeable build in energy as a song proceeds from verse to chorus, the logical choice should be to move your melody generally higher as it moves forward.
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Sweet the repetition part is good and helping ☑️☑️
Hi….im really glad i came around this article….i love everything musical…am a rapper. Afropop singer and i do good chorus but i sing more of Key “F without strain nd face-squeezing and attimes i go to F#….you mean i should try going above my pitch for better melody?
Everyone will have a range that dictates how high they can sing. But for some singers, there’s always an attempt to play it safe and write melodies that sit in the middle of their range. My point in the article was to say that sometimes, you can get an exciting sound by pushing the range a bit higher so that it’s placed as high as is musically possible. There may be a bit of tension in the voice (and you have to be careful with vocal strain, of course), but the occasional note that jumps up to the top of the range should be fine. Everyone has their limits, though, so don’t try to sing higher than is possible. 🙂
i swear i really enjoy your articules and i promise neva to miss any of them
Okay repetition is important but, what about the note choices? Some scale degrees are dissonant while some are consonant. Can writing beautiful melodies be taught?
Could you explain point number 3 in a little more detail? I am mainly a lyric writer but certainly can create a full melody for a song and i understand contrast and all that. I am having trouble seeing the “flip” you describe melodically in the verse/pre-chorus to Taylor Swifts song.
All I meant by that was that the first part of the verse melody uses a downward-moving shape. Then the pre-chorus switches direction, and we hear the first few notes of the pre-chorus melody moving upward.
Ah…That makes sense. Thanks!
Terrific post, Gary. Glad I came upon your blog! Like many, “Over the Rainbow” is my favorite song…
I’ve noticed that many pop songs have so much repetition, they consist almost solely of chorus after chorus. Is this repetition gone too far?
The repetition of songwriting ideas (for example, the “chorus after chorus” that you mention), is most prevalent in songs that are hit-bound. Generally, the songs that seem to move to the top of the Billboard Hot 100 are songs that are heavy in hooks and other repetitious song elements. Since choruses are where hooks are most obvious, you can find lots of songs where the verses are just vehicles for getting to the chorus.
Thanks for writing, and I’m glad you enjoy the blog.
I’d love an example of songs that use verses as vehicles to get to the chorus, and examples of how they do it. It would be interesting from a “how not to use repetition” point of view.
Great article by the way! Very useful!